See 'Further information' below for links to national guidance.
Please also see the Portsmouth Anti-Bullying Guidance (2018).
- Definition and types of bullying
- Signs of bullying
- Dealing with and preventing bullying
- Further information
Definition and types of bullying
Bullying is behaviour by an individual or group, repeated over time, that intentionally hurts another individual or group either physically or emotionally. Bullying can take many forms (for instance, cyber-bullying via text messages, social media or gaming, which can include the use of images and video) and is often motivated by prejudice against particular groups, for example on grounds of race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, special educational needs or disabilities, or because a child is adopted, in care or has caring responsibilities. It might be motivated by actual differences between children, or perceived differences.
There are various types of bullying which can be summarised as:
- Sexual – touching, repeated exhibitionism, voyeurism, sexual propositioning; verbal personal comment or deviant desires communicated
- Racist and faith-based – name calling, derogatory assumptions or generalisations about race, culture, religious faiths and beliefs
- Homophobic and biphobic – based on actual or perceived sexual orientation and can include name calling, exclusion and gestures, negative stereotyping based on sexual orientation, using ‘gay’ as a negative term.
- Transphobic – based on actual or perceived gender identity, and can include name calling, exclusion and gestures, negative stereotyping based on gender identity
- Appearance – based on weight, size, hair colour, unusual physical features
- Disability – name calling, exclusion, talking over a person, mimicking, physical overpowering (e.g. moving a wheelchair), laughing at a difficulty
- Health – based on physical or mental conditions
- Income-based – of living on a low income
- Caring responsibilities – name calling, negative assumptions/misunderstandings about young carers
For more information, see Portsmouth Anti-Bullying Guidance (2018).
Signs of bullying
The NSPCC lists the following signs of bullying to watch out for:
- belongings getting 'lost' or damaged
- physical injuries, such as unexplained bruises
- being afraid to go to school, being mysteriously 'ill' each morning, or skipping school
- not doing as well at school
- asking for, or stealing, money (to give to whoever's bullying them)
- being nervous, losing confidence, or becoming distressed and withdrawn
- problems with eating or sleeping
- bullying others.
Dealing with and preventing bullying
For further information on dealing with an preventing bullying in the school setting, see Preventing and Tackling Bullying (Department for Education, 2017).
- Preventing and Tackling Bullying (Department for Education)
- Cyberbullying: Advice for Headteachers and School Staff (Department for Education, 2015)
- Advice for parents and carers on cyberbullying (Department for Education, 2015)
- Ending gang violence and exploitation (Home Office, 2016)
- Portsmouth Trans Inclusion Guidance for schools and colleges
- National Referral Mechanism (Modern Day Slavery)
- Portsmouth anti-bullying guidance
- ChildNet International
- Internet Watch Foundation
- Think U Know
- UK Council for Child Internet Safety